I Ching readings – an introduction

I’m now offering readings with the I Ching – here’s what to expect

For the last thirty odd years, I’ve turned to the I Ching to look for guidance in tricky, potentially life-changing decisions. I’m now offering I Ching readings using the coins or sticks methods as an alternative or supplement to Tarot readings.

Why choose one method of divination over the other? One might equally ask why seek advice from one person instead of another. On some days, you want to hear from a like-minded friend or acquaintance. On other days, you might need to hear from a more venerable source. The Tarot as a divinatory tool has existed in its current form for about 500 years of which only the last couple of centuries have been spent as a fortune telling tool. By now, there are tens of thousands versions of the Tarot in terms of imagery and approach as there are magicians and tarot readers. Every day, it feels like scores of new ‘indie’ tarots appear (at time of writing, a search for ‘Tarot’ on Kickstarter delivers 1,771 projects). It sometimes seems that there are as many ways of reading the Tarot as there are readers. 

In contrast, the I Ching is a book which was fixed in its current form about two and half millennia ago in ancient Zhou China and admitted to the canon of the classics by Emperor Wu of Han in 136 BCE. Scholars and writers from both hemispheres continue to produce  commentaries and translations but the book itself has remained fundamentally unchanged for nearly 2,500 years. Throughout every translation I’ve studied, the flavour of the text and the personality of its advice remains unchanged.

Another important difference is the I Ching’s unbroken lineage as a foundational text of Taoism, the equally ancient Chinese philosophy and magical religion. In contrast, Tarot’s philosophical position remains…mutable.

The I Ching consists of 64 hexagrams, arrangements of six lines which can be ‘broken’ (yin) or ‘unbroken’ (yang). Each Hexagram has an associated set of texts called ‘The Judgement’, ‘The Image’ and a series of commentaries written by scholars and Taoist masters and fixed as part of the overall apparatus of the text (the ‘Ten Wings’, as it is called) at various points from 300BCE onwards. Scholars literally have no idea how this happened beyond the fact of its extreme antiquity. 

What does a reading consist of? Firstly, you need a question and secondly, you need to choose a method of generating a hexagram. When reading for others, the process is exactly the same as when reading for my myself. I build up a hexagram line by line by either throwing coins (for quick questions) or manipulating 50 sticks (pick-up-sticks from a toy store! The traditional yarrow stalks are hard to come by near the South London ring road). Having arrived at a hexagram, picked out any ‘moving lines’ – lines that have the potential to flip from yang to ying or vice versa and so generate a further hexagram to consider – I spend reflecting, studying the commentaries and writing about and send a pdf of the results, including photos of the hexagram. As with Tarot readings, I try to make it as close to what people might experience were they sitting in a room with me, bent over the same cards and texts.

There is so much more to be said about this – look out for future posts. Meanwhile, you can book an I Ching reading for yourself here.

The (not so) Scary Suit of Swords

The Airy suit of Swords has a nasty reputation but it’s a largely undeserved one. In my experience, Swords is certainly a suit that engages and describes conflict, the downside of thoughtless competition and the consequences of our less well-thought through actions and interactions. But I’d argue that the Swords also tell us more about our capacity for cognitive dissonance than we perhaps want to know. 

Cognitive dissonance arises when you find yourself trying to cope with two contradictory facts, such as your belief that the election was stolen from Donald Trump versus the complete failure of his followers to produce any actual evidence to prove this assertion. Cognitive dissonance hurts. Deciding that you’ll accept the new, contrary state doesn’t help because you still have to process the discomfort of having ever held the previous belief. So most people take the sensible option. They find an explanation – any explanation – that allows them to continue without change. They invent conspiracies or assert that the lack of evidence is proof that it’s all been suppressed. And so on.

That’s the key difference between, say, the 10 of Swords and the 10 of Wands. The latter strains to deliver a whole world of fiery activity and delivery and allows for the subject to pretend that everything is under control, no matter overloaded they might appear. Admitting that something is wrong or that they might have taken on too much is quite out of the question. The former shows the aftermath of taking on too much and dropping the ball. It isn’t pretty. It isn’t a simple of matter of Subjective Wands versus Objective Swords either (though there’s certainly something to be said for that). 

The other problem with Swords is their tendency to show you what has already gone wrong as much as what’s going wrong or will go wrong. But along with this goes that Airy clarity which offers a solution, even if its rooted in a kind of tough love (yes, the universe loves you. It just has a funny way of showing it at times). 

One way of looking at the Swords is to see them as dramatising and analysing a difficult process. Think of the disruption of the 7, the stubborn refusal to accept facts of the 8, the anguish of the 9 and the moral devastation of the 10. At each point, the surrounding cards may offer a way out or  a solution or a road not taken but still (if you hurry) available.

To summarise, Swords are cards of conflict and thought and dishonest thinking is at the root of most of the conflicts they model. And asking yourself the tough questions is the only way to resolve their various dilemmas.

The Eight of Cups and the Sunk Cost Fallacy

In Pamela Colman-Smith’s classic version of the 8 of Cups, a figure in a red cloak, his or her back turned to us, is striding away from a bleak, rocky shore supported by a staff. In the foreground, eight cups are displayed in groups of three and five. Possibly he’s heading for greener pastures. In any case, the image is clearly that of someone resolutely turning his or her back on a situation.

Let’s break this down a little. Stepping away from the rather prescriptive picture (and all narratively focused pictures tend to be prescriptive which can be limiting for people who are at an early stage in their journey with the cards) , let’s look at what’s implied by the number ‘8’ and the nature of the Cups. When we looked at the Eight of Wands, we saw a kind of nervy over-commitment. Lots of things were happening with projects and decisions flying here there and everywhere. What was missing was a sense of things being grounded. Filtering this sense of ‘slightly too much’ through the suit of Cups, relating as they do to emotions, relationships and the instinctual, gives us the emotional kick-back to that situation: “Too much! Take it away!”

Coming at it from another angle, this Eight asks about the depth of your emotional commitment. There is confusion, a lack of satisfaction with one’s state which makes it tempting to down tools and walk away. You might see this Eight appearing when you’re over-worked in a job or doing tasks which take something of an emotional toll. Another context (look carefully at the surrounding cards) might be if you feel under-appreciated by managers or workmates or even customers. Does what you’re doing really mean enough to you to put up with all this? Hence an alternate possibility for the Rider-Waite-Smith illustration – of someone who’s downed tools and walked off. They’ve had it up to here and they are gone.

Reversed, the card could indicate a number of variations on this theme. It could refer to someone who needs to let go of a situation but can’t quite bring themselves to. Or someone who’s abandoned a dream or vision they’ve held onto for a long time – perhaps too long. Another way of looking at this is to go back and consider the meaning of the Four of Cups; one of its meanings is the challenge to make your mind up and commit to a particular vision. The Eight is the Four Doubled But Doubting – is this really worth it?

This relates to a final possibility for this complex, challenging card whether upright of reversed – the Eight of Cups as the Angel of the Sunk Cost Fallacy. The Sunk Cost Fallacy is a classic business problem to which there is no good answer for everyone. Let’s say you’ve spent most of your department’s budget on a shiny new customer relationship management system. It’s a risky, innovative tool and a project that could possibly bring a you lot of prestige. But there’s a problem. Eight months in and it still doesn’t work. Your IT manager, a wise old bird whom you perhaps didn’t consult in as much detail as you should have done when the project started, suggests dumping it and going with an off-the-shelf product that’ll deliver 90% of the benefit for a smaller cost, though admittedly that cost will have to be added onto the huge amount you’ve already spent on the Turbo-Dino-CRM ™. It’s at the point you find yourself saying the deadly words…

“But we’ve already spent so much on this and it’ll all go to waste!”

That’s the sunk cost fallacy, the idea that money already spent somehow counts for more than money that might be spent in the future. “We’ve spent so much already in cash, time, ideas…we can’t stop now!” It’s a scarily common position in politics, business, relationships…A couple of particularly brutal examples are outlined in this article.

The point is that you can stop now. Money spent on a bad idea is sunk. It’s gone. Grit your teeth, pick up your staff and put on your red cloak. Leave those chimerical dreams behind you and move on.

The Pope and the Emperor walk into a bar…

It’s roughly towards the beginning of the 14th century. The Emperor says, “I’ll have Europe please.”

The Pope says, “I’ll have two of whatever he’s having.”

The Emperor, feeling this is a bit cheeky, knocks the Pope over the head and drags him off to Avignon. Thus begins the notorious Avignon Papacy.

Of course, medieval specialists will know that it wasn’t the Emperor who kidnapped the Pope but Phillip IV of France. It was one attempted solution to a problem that had bedevilled (or be-Devil-ed) Europe ever since a canny political operator forged a document supposedly bearing the signature of the Roman Emperor Constantine handing over most of Western Europe to the Pope. The result? Hundreds of years of war and bickering, during which the peasants always lost, no matter which side they were on.

What, if you’ve got this far, does this have to do with tarot? Well, you can’t escape the fact that Tarot originates as an early Renaissance artefact rooted in late medieval thinking and imagery.

The Pope and the Emperor. The best of friends. Not.

The Pope and the Emperor are both authoritarian figures representing two very different authorities. The Emperor wields secular, military and economic power. He’s good at it. But at his worst (and the archetypes of the Trumps can stand for any gender, remember)? Tyranny, strip-mining and the sociopathic wielding of power for its own sake. Joe Biden vs Donald Trump. The Pope wields religious power, though there’s no reason why this can’t be a secular expression of an essentially religious (but agnostic) impulse. At its best, the Pope stands for kind of spiritual authority developed through an ordered, disciplined live as part of a wider structure – the Dalai Lama or Bernie Saunders, say. At its worst, dogma and, yes, tyranny – Jerry Falwell and Iranian theocracy.

In a reading, expect to see these cards appear in the contexts of bosses, teachers, leaders, parents or powerful structured influences in your life. If they appear together? Tread carefully. Dante, author of the Divine Comedy, loathed the idea of the unity of church and state and large chunks of the Comedy are spent excoriating various emperors and popes. He was exiled from his native Florence under threat of being burned alive for his views and was never able to return.

And if you want a tarot reading to explore the influence of these and other interesting forces in your day to day life, you only have to ask.

That Old Devil Moon, Pt 1

The Moon is one of my favourite Tarot trumps but I’d be the first to admit that it isn’t the most comfortable of cards. For one thing, the Moon often shines a light on things we’d rather keep hidden. For another, there are all those classical associations with madness (lunacy!) and hysteria. And the imagery is plain weird, even by the standards of the Tarot. And yet, it’s also one of the most powerful ‘teaching’ cards, holding up a mirror to those neglected or repressed elements of ourselves and our strengths that the following card in the sequence, the brilliant Sun might might simply dazzle and outshine. Beneath the softer light of the Moon, all things can grow.  In this short series, I want to take a closer look at the history of this card in particular and tease out how the meanings associated with the comtemporary understand of the card have developed.

The Moon in the Marseilles and Visconti Tarot decks

The Visconti-Sforza group of Tarot decks form one of the earliest designs known and the first thing that strikes anyone used to modern decks is that the Moon is actually a character, a goddess to be precise. She stands amidst a lush, verdant landscape holding a sharp crescent moon at eye level with her right hand. Her left hand lightly holds two strange blue tendrils writhing out of her rope girdle. They form a shape that makes one think of two snakes. This is particularly interesting when one thinks of the associations of serpents and classical moon goddesses such as Hecate, queen of witches whom even Zeus honoured (according to Hesiod). Isis created the serpent out of her dust and spittle. There is also an echo of the snakes wrapped round the staffs of Mercury or Asclepius (though Asclepius classically only engaged with one snake). 

Luna is also barefoot, suggesting the intimate relationship of the Moon and earth, and standing on the edge of a cliff. This immediately reminds one of the Fool, though Luna makes no move towards the precipice’s lip.

This version of the Moon focuses more on change through fixed, rhythmical patterns like the tides, the regular shedding of skins by skins and the phases of the Moon There is little disturbing about it to the casual onlooker. But by the time we reach the cartoon-like Marseilles, the Goddess has been reduced to a face in the moon whilst the crayfish (why a crayfish and not a Cancerian crab? The two seem to be interchangeable and the crayfish is now general accepted as a synonym for the Crab in symbolic terms) rises menacingly through blue water. Two doglike creatures howl between two towers in the hills. Rays and droplets of light fill the sky as if the Moon is a shadow version of the sun. We are not in Kansas anymore, or Florence for that matter.

The face in the Moon is another major change in that it offers a Man *in* the Moon rather than a Goddess holding it. The feminine Moon has been changed into a masculine Moon (though its worth noting that to the Anglo-Saxons, the Moon was male and the “Sonne” was female). And yet there are still echoes of moon Goddess Artemis in the angry looking pair of hounds. The hunter Actaeon was torn to pieces by his own pack for the crime of seeing her bathing. Are the dogs here baying and barking because the Man in the Moon has committed a similar crime? 

The earliest version of the Tarot of Marseilles dates back to the mid 17th century and it is important to remember that it was still manufactured at this point for the purpose of playing card games, not as a tool for divination, esotericism and magic. It wasn’t until Court de Gébelin and Etteilla in late 18th century France that the notion of the cards as a repository for ancient wisdom began to be developed and popularised. We’ll skim through this in part two and then have a closer look the Moon’s development through the lenses of two great 20th esoteric decks – the Colman-Smith/Waite/Rider pack of 1910 and the later Thoth tarot of Crowley and Lady Freida Harris, created in the 30s and early 40s but not published until 1969 (though Crowley’s book on the Tarot, the Book of Thoth, came out in 1944 and contained the illustrations of the designs). If I get that far, Part 3 will look at the Moon in a number of modern decks and show how the Colman-Smith/Waite deck continues to dominate readings of the deck as a whole.Tarot history